Biotechnology includes the science of living organisms and creating products depending upon the requirement and technology. The concept lies behind the need for modification, cultivation of plants, improvement of animals via breeding programs, the appropriate selection of hybridization, and artificial selection. Modern usage of these subjects is to implement genetic engineering, tissue culture, pharmaceuticals, crops, livestock, etc. Biotechnology is a combination of biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, embryology, genetics, microbiology, botany, zoology, etc.
Biotechnology can be simplified as the technology and research development in the laboratories and centre using bioinformatics for the development and exploration of living organisms by extraction and production by means of biochemical engineering and biosynthesis especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology has the wide vision of development, the branch use of detailed study for the welfare and the development of the remedies for the human and living organism welfare including plants. It also prevents side effects or other safety concerns.
Bio-engineering has the following subfields- chemical engineering, tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, genetic engineering, etc. Live examples of biotechnology are biodegradable plastics, soils, fuels, and other environmental concerns that can be nullified by the usage of substitution products.
It is used to create bacteria for different purposes related to milk and beers, and several biological weapons have been created by several nations.
Some branches of biotechnology
•Blue technology, Green biotechnology, Red biotechnology, White biotechnology, Yellow biotechnology, Grey biotechnology
•Medicines - pharmacogenomics- is a combination of pharmacy and genetics.
•Agriculture- GM crops or biotech crops- genetically modified crops as well as for bioremediation.
• Synthetic biology used in industries and genetic modification of microbes and bacteria for the disposal of waste, nature-friendly microbes for the production of energy instead of fossil-based energy usage.
Courses and their duration
•Diploma in Biotechnology- 3 years
•Bachelors of Biotechnology – 4years
•Bachelor’s of Technology in cellular and modular Engineering- 4 years
•Bachelor’s of Technology in industrial microbiology- 4 years
•Bachelor of science in biotechnology- 3 years
•Masters of technology in biotechnology - 2 years
•Masters of technology in bioinformatics- 2 years
•Masters of science in biotechnology- 2 years
•Post-graduates in biotechnology- 1-2 years
• PhD in biotechnology (any specific subject)- variable length
B.SC of Microbiology/ biotechnology- candidates must have passed 12th or equivalent (with subjects like physics, chemistry, and biology/ maths as optional) with a minimum of 55-60%. Some colleges may prefer the score of entrance exams for admission consideration.
Entrance exams for the biotechnology courses.
DUET: conducted by Delhi University.
KIITEE: organised by KIIT Bhubaneswar.
SAAT: is a national level entrance exam by Siksha’o’ Anusadhan University.
KCET: is organised by the Karnataka state.
Jamia Millia Islamia entrance exam.
Several other universities and institutions conduct entrance exams for admission and some consider academic percentages.
Some colleges offering diploma, bachelor’s , post graduates and research programs
1.IIT Delhi (department of biochemical engineering and biotechnology
5.Alagappa college of technology (Chennai)
6.Birla Institute of Technology
7.School of life science, university of Hyderabad
8.Rajiv Gandhi centre of biotechnology, Trivandrum
9.Institute of chemical technology, Mumbai
10.University school of biotechnology, Delhi
11.National dairy research institute, Karnal
12.Department of biochemical engineering and biotechnology, IIT Delhi
13.Shoolini University, Solan
14.University institute of engineering and technology, Punjab University, Chandigarh
15.Department of microbiology and biotechnology centre, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
16.Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University
18.Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar
19.Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Noida
20.Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi
Applicants have to go through the official sites of the respected colleges/ institute for detailed procedures. The date of registration is mentioned on the websites.
The candidates have to submit all the required details like name, birthdates, previous institution, academic percentage, etc.
Some colleges may ask for the score of particular entrance exams and cutoff may be prepared on the basis of the scores.
Some institutions may consider academic merit followed by interviews.
The final merit list will be uploaded on the official websites of the respective institution; the selected students should visit and pay the required fee for admission.
Biotechnology and all the subjects related to technology and health have emerged and helped mankind in this era of pandemics. It is the best example of the biotechnologists; the youngsters are considering this branch as one of the important education fields for their careers. This has expanded its limits to virology, immunology, physiology, etc.
Today we can see the career scope of biotechnologists in various fields such as the food sector, medical sector, health care sector, environment sector, industrial sectors, and agriculture.
Some common job profiles are
•Medical and clinical laboratory technologist and technician
•R and D and process Development scientists
By Mithila Rathod
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